organization of semantic knowledge

She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. The presence of anomia may be conspicuous in spontaneous or conversational speech. Tacit knowledge known as “know-what”, is easy to identify, store, retrieve and disseminate. Explicit knowledge is intuitive, based on experience, intractable and refers to knowledge known as “know-how”. I will then take into account the anatomical locus of lesions found in these category-specific semantic disorders and discuss their consistency with the set of predictions based on the 'differential weighting hypothesis'. Explicit knowledge is often seen as complementary to tacit knowledge in that you need both to draw a complete picture of organizational knowledge. The emphasis on developing comprehensive KOSs can be seen in the writings of our earliest philosophers, many of whom continue to influence our view of the world. As such, it brings meaning to our interactions with objects and people around us—and, as a consequence, it plays a … According to recent research, the Semantic Web, an extension of the current Web (Berners-Lee, 1999; May 2001), (Decker, 2000) and its related Linked Data concepts and techniques appear to be appropriate for solving issues of knowledge acquisition, documentation, transfer and sharing/distribution in an organizational context. Gainotti, Guido Brain and Cognition , v75 n3 p299-309 Apr 2011 We also tried to check the influence of age and stimulus modality on these evaluations of the ‘sources of knowledge’ underlying different conceptual categories. The only aphasic syndrome for which an important role of semantic disorders was admitted was the so called “transcortical sensory aphasia,” caused by a lesion of the posterior parieto-temporo- occipital association areas and characterized, from the clinical point of view, by a severe lexical comprehension disorder with production of verbal–semantic paraphasias, in a context of fluent speech without repetition disorders. There is another word-finding problem that is noted in the conversational speech of fluent aphasia. When it is individual, knowledge shows an individual's ability to demonstrate judgment in a particular situation. It was originally defined by Polanyi (1958). II) encephalitis. IN 1908 and 1922, Pick1,2 described two patients suffering respectively from senile dementia and internal hydrocephalus, who made striking errors in pointing to various parts of the body on verbal command, although they recognized the part as soon as their hand happened to touch it. A ConceptScheme is analogous to a vocabulary, thesaurus, or other way of organizing concepts. In opposition, the domain-specificity theory posits that knowledge may instead be codified within a more abstract organization of semantic attributes independently from sensorimotor processing (Caramazza and Shelton, 1998, Mahon et al., 2009). It also points out the limitations of the technique and some of its recent developments, opening the way for further comprehension of language processing. During recent years, its study has largely benefited from new medical imaging technologies among which positron emission tomography (PET), allowing for direct observation of in vivo human brain activity. Cultural knowledge refers to being familiar with various cultural characteristics, including history, moral values, belief systems, history, and social norms. The organization of conceptual knowledge: the evidence from category-specific semantic deficits Alfonso Caramazza and Bradford Z. Mahon Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Questions about the organization of conceptual knowl- This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. We conclude that this patient's impairments stemmed from a disturbance restricted to the subsystem for active judgement and selection of representations in the phonological output lexicon. These findings indicate that the difference between the (verbal) format of the semantic knowledge supported by the left hemisphere and the (sensory-motor) format of conceptual representations supported by the right hemisphere is not qualitative, as suggested by the Paivio (e.g., [13,14]) "dual code" theory, but quantitative as proposed by the sensory-motor account of conceptual knowledge (e.g., [12, ... One idea is that representations of different knowledge types are located in separate regions of the brain, and that the location of brain damage is therefore critical in determining which domain of knowledge is prefer- entially disrupted. The idea of semantic memory was first introduced following a conference in 1972 between Endel Tulving, of the University of Toronto, and W. Donaldson on the role of organization in human memory. The types of representation and the styles of computation in the brain appear to be very different from the symbolic expressions and logical inferences that are used in sentence-logic models of cognition. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. with their semantic relationships - and in quantity by increasing the number of facts by more than an order of magnitude. On one hand, it is commonly thought that, This papers provides two contributions to the problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM): First we discuss properties of the problem itself and of the intended semantics of an uncertain map representation, with the main idea of "representing certainty of relations despite the uncertainty of positions". The patient fails to name objects on confrontation, but readily explains or demonstrates their use, proving that he recognizes the object but cannot produce the verbal symbol. In Khosrow-Pour D.B.A., M. Functional-anatomical correlations from cross-sectional analyses, A selective Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon, The evaluation of sources of knowledge underlying different semantic categories, IMPAIRED PHONOLOGICAL READING IN PRIMARY DEGENERATIVE DEMENTIA, Automatic semantic priming of nouns and verbs in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Contrasting Cases of Italian Agrammatic Aphasia without comprehension disorder, Neural Representation and Neural Computation, Störung der Orienterung am eigenen Körper. We adopt a (partial-) Lagrangian framework in an effort to unify various theoretical and algorithmic developments with (sometimes) simpler notation. Organization and Emergence of Semantic Knowledge: A Parallel-Distributed Processing Approach James L. McClelland (jlm@cnbc.cmu.edu) Department of Psychology and Center for … Rather general knowledge also counts in the same. Production of nouns was highly facilitated by provision of a semantically relevant sentence frame. ), Kone, Mamadou Tadiou. Guest Editor We survey some attempts along this direction, which we conceptually categorized into three main approaches: (1) use first-order methods to solve SDP relaxations approximately; (2) exploit dual optimal solution to derive reformulations; (3) generate cuts in the original variable space by solving the (dual) SDP relaxations heuristically. This is a radical departure from the a priori, introspection-based strategy that has characterized most previous work in epistemology. "State of the Art in Semantic Organizational Knowledge.". Linguistic data is also presented in support of the hypothesis that semantics knowledge is organized into domains. From an early age, children play sorting and matching games. The normal control subjects demonstrated automatic activation for both concrete nouns and motion verbs. The popular view of this type of knowledge is a form of knowledge encoded in organizational practices, procedures and routines. Some technologies have been fully studied and utilized upon this meaningful A 42 year-old man developed Herpes Simplex type II (H.S.V. On the contrary, according to the second model, proposed by Allport (1985) and Jackendoff (1987) and developed byDamasio (1989Damasio ( , 1990), We constructed a test battery in which subjects were requested to recognize the same persons (well-known at the national level) through their faces and voices, evaluating familiarity and identifica, We organize a Special Issue in the journal "Brain Sciences" on "Emotions and the Right Hemisphere". Sitnikova T(1), West WC, Kuperberg GR, Holcomb PJ. Semantic cognition refers to the goal-directed activation of semantic knowledge, encompassing the meanings of words, sounds, actions, symbols, and faces. In recent years several papers have shown that different verbal and non-verbal semantic categories can be selectively disrupted by brain damage and that consistent anatomical localizations correspond to each category-specific semantic disorder.This paper aims to suggest that the brain regions typically damaged in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder might be critically involved in processing the kind of information which mainly contributes to organizing that semantic category and to distinguishing among its members.This general hypothesis is discussed taking into account: (a) comprehension and production of object names (nouns) and of action names (verbs) in agrammatic and in anomic aphasic patients; (b) verbal and non-verbal identification of body parts; (c) verbal and non-verbal identification of living beings and of man made artefacts. uncertainty, memory space and computation time and discuss existing approaches in the light of these requirements. It shows that a knowledge-based hierarchy is a natural way to organize the acquisition of knowledge when matching problems with those who know how to solve them is costly. We asked 20 normal volunteers to provide properties of 64 concrete items, drawn from living and nonliving categories, by completing simple sentence stems (e.g., an owl is __, has __, can__). This test battery will be administered to patients with right temporal lobe atrophy to see if face recognition disorders often observed in these patients must be considered as an instance of associative prosopagnosia or as an aspect of a multimodal people recognition disorder. Originally, organizational knowledge is the ability of employees of an organization to perform tasks given the collective understanding of a particular context. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. Compared with abstract of a specific paper written by authors themselves, The status of semantic representations of nouns (concrete and abstract) and verbs (motion and non-motion) was investigated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neural organization of semantic memory: Electrophysiological activity suggests feature-based segregation. to model scientific literature and their interlinked relationships, we develop a domain-specific ontology to analyze contents The main goals of the present review are (a) to survey a larger set of data, in order to confirm the differences in conceptual representations at the level of the right and left hemispheres, (b) to examine if language-mediated information plays a greater role in left hemisphere semantic knowledge than sensory-motor information in right hemisphere conceptual knowledge, and (c) to discuss the models that could explain both the differences in conceptual representations at the hemispheric level and the prevalence of the left hemisphere language-mediated semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually based conceptual representations. Semantic knowledge Blindness Supramodality Category-based organization fMRI Multivoxel pattern analysis 1. This computer can be thought of as computing hierarchies of sensorimotor invariants. Set-theoretical model 2. An advantage for artefacts is typically associated with an aetiology of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (which predominantly affects temporolimbic structures) whilst the opposite pattern more often follows damage to frontoparietal regions, ... Several clinical observations of aphasics support this assumption. Two types of URIs exist: the Uniform Resource Locator (URLs) and Uniform Resource Names (URNs) which follow known syntax and protocols to. we introduce an automatic summary generation algorithm to create objective descriptions from other scholars’ perspectives This loss of semantic knowledge disrupts the normal organization of semantic memory in AD patients and results in aberrations in their network of semantic representations. , the term was co-opted by Artificial Intelligence researchers to represent computational models for reasoning! 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